Friday, May 25, 2018

Road Tripping Time of Year

Summer's pretty much here. Ready to hit the road? Although gasoline's been inching up the last month or so, driving travel might be less hassle than flying and its own set of preparations and endurances.

Seeing SNL's skit in March about "Californians" made me think about road trips. The "Californians" is one of several similar-theme skits that SNL has created over the years. The music is reminiscent of "Ventura Highway" by America. The seeming melodrama is offset by people recounting their driving directions during the conversations. Visit "The Californians Collection" and "The Californians".

If in the mood for listening to road-trip theme songs while actually on the road, maybe save choices to your device(s) ahead of time. The suggestions I've listed are from YouTube.

Some General Purpose Road Trip Songs
"On the Road Again" by Willie Nelson
"On the Road Again" by Canned Heat
"Me and You and a Dog Named Boo" by Lobo
"Route 66" theme song by Nelson Riddle

Some Road Trip Destination Songs
"Woodstock" by Crosby, Stills, Nash
"Kansas City" by Wilbert Harrison
"Georgia on My Mind" by Ray Charles
"Sweet Home Alabama" by Lynyrd Skynyrd
"By the Time I Get to Phoenix" by Glen Campbell
Pack what you need, but don't sweat over items you can pick up later if you forget. Stay tankful with your road trip!

Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Purple Daze 2, Deeper into History

In "Purple Daze 1, Various Purply Names", I focused on various purply colors. I mentioned a "The Meanings of Purple" statement: "The earliest purple dyes date back to about 1900 B.C. It took some 12,000 shellfish to extract 1.5 grams of the pure dye - barely enough for dying a single garment the size of the Roman toga." This article dives deepter into purple history.

From "Purple Color: Meanings and Uses"
The color purple is synonymous with royalty. This mysterious color is associated with both nobility and spirituality.

Purple has a special, almost sacred place in nature: lavender, orchid, lilac and violet flowers are delicate. Because the color is derived from a mix of a strong warm and strong cool color, it has both warm and cool properties.

Deep or bright purples suggest riches, while lighter purples are more romantic, delicate and feminine. Use redder purples for a warm color scheme or the bluer purples for a cool scheme.

Crayola actually has a crayon named "orchid" (purple family). On the other hand, "The Amazing True History Of Orchids And What Their Colors Represent" contains a few non-purply orchid images that don't fit the Crayola model.

From "Why Is the Color Purple Associated With Royalty?"
The color purple has been associated with royalty, power and wealth for centuries. … Purple fabric used to be so outrageously expensive that only rulers could afford it. … it became associated with the imperial classes of Rome, Egypt, and Persia. Purple also came to represent spirituality and holiness because the ancient emperors, kings and queens that wore the color were often thought of as gods or descendents of the gods. …

In 1856, 18-year-old English chemist William Henry Perkin accidently created a synthetic purple compound while attempting to synthesize quinine, an anti-malaria drug . … he patented the dye and manufactured it under the name aniline purple and Tyrian purple, … The color's name was later changed to "mauve" in 1859, …

From "The Rich and Royal History of Purple, the Color of 2018", which includes similar historical information as "Why Is the Color Purple Associated With Royalty?". It also describes Pantene's color of the year for 2018.
The Pantone Color Institute, which helps makers of products select color for designs, announced this week that it chose to paint the coming year Ultra Violet, a purple-highlighter shade.

Leatrice Eiseman, the institute’s executive director, told The New York Times in an article in the Fashion and Style section published Thursday. “Because it takes two shades that are seemingly diametrically opposed — blue and red — and brings them together to create something new.”
About "ultraviolet": "The 2018 Pantone color of the year is definitely not purple" stresses "Pantone’s 2018 marquee color’s name is a misnomer. Ultraviolet is not a color that most humans can see because it’s outside the visible spectrum. … Only individuals with a condition called aphakia (the absence of eye lens) can perceive ultraviolet as a color."

More Purple Passion Links

Want more purple-themed resources, purple-possessed people?
"Purple Lives Here" claims "Over 1,100 purple items. We find the true purple items so you can trust it won't arrive pink or blue."

"All About The Color PURPLE" has exhaustive lists about purple, including sections for "COMPANIES OR BRANDS IDENTIFIED BY PURPLE" and "SONGS WITH PURPLE IN THE TITLE", purple WRT food (taste, sense of smell), and political and societal connotations. Chances are good if you've thought of a purple term, this site lists it.

Monday, April 30, 2018

Purple Daze 1, Various Purply Names

Occasionally, I kick around purple colors in my head. I've been dazed about them more than other colors pertaining to elementary school crayon colors, primary/secondary tempra colors from art class, and visible light colors. Purple seems a more dominant color name than violet, which Crayola uses, but with a nod to purple. "What were the original eight (8) colors in the 1903 box of Crayola Crayons?" lists the color as "violet (purple)".

My pixstrip shows purply clothing items (some with only smaller purply bits) and corresponding color snippets with lighter background. I wistfully thought about a couple of purply items I donated in the distant past.

Eye See Violet and Purple 

Hmmm, so what's the deal about the dodgy term "violet (purple)"? Are they the same color? Some resources explain:

"Difference between ‘violet’ and ‘purple’" (purple/violet contrast image at the author's article)
purple looks more “reddish” than violet … Purple is formed by mixing red and blue at a ratio close to 1:1, whereas violet is perceived by your eyes as containing more blue than red. … no spectral colour activates the “blue” path and the “red” path at the ratio of 1:1 without also stimulating the “green” path. In other words purple is not a spectral colour.

Purple is a mixture of red (which is at the opposite side of the spectrum than violet) and blue (which is relatively far from violet), so it is, in terms of wavelengths, a completely different colour.

"Violet and Purple Aren't The Same Thing"
When you see brown, you're seeing a mixture of light wavelengths that activate different cones in varying ratios to produce a color your brain finally interprets as brown.

Violet activates the blue and red cones—the blue cones a lot, the red cones a little less. Purple, on the other hand, hits your eyes in the same way our brown example did above. It's a combination of the spectral colors blue and red. Rather than activating blue and red cones in a given ratio, purple combines the cone ratio for blue with the cone ratio for red to come up with an entirely new color.

"Purple Color Meaning – The Color Purple"
The difference between violet and purple is that violet is displayed in the visible light spectrum, while purple is simply a mixture of red and blue. Violet vibrations are the highest in the visible spectrum. … violet is not quite as intense as purple

"Primary colors: The truth about purple"
Purple is a mixture of colors, like white. If you mix blue light and red light, your eye will see purple, but in reality, it’s just a mix of blue and red. … Scientifically, purple is not a color because there is no beam of pure light that looks purple. There is no light wavelength that corresponds to purple.

"The Meanings of Purple" is loaded with information; however, the absence of "violet" is somewhat suspicious. The article does link to a probably more technically correct explanation regarding visible wavelength, which is violet.
Purple is the most powerful visible wavelength of electromagnetic energy. It’s just a few steps away from x-rays and gamma rays. …

Variations of purple convey different meanings: Light purples are light-hearted, floral, and romantic. The dark shades are more intellectual and dignified. …

The earliest purple dyes date back to about 1900 B.C. It took some 12,000 shellfish to extract 1.5 grams of the pure dye - barely enough for dying a single garment the size of the Roman toga.

For more extensive information about purple history, read "Purple Daze 2, Deeper into History".

Loads of Various Purply Colors

Besides violet and purple having dazed me, I've also been befuddled by other purply terms, which I hesitate to label such-color items. Many of them pertain to flowers or fruit.

Lilac and lavender have confused me lots over the years. "Lavender vs. Lilac: What's the Difference?" contrasts these purply colors with pictures, a table, and descriptions. I thought about the song "Lavender Blue". Coincidentally, I ran across another similarly worded song that also mentions "lavender blue", "lavender green", "dilly, dilly", "king", and "queen".

Grape and plum are a couple of foods with purply colors. For grape flavors, such as ades, jellies, and jams, seems all grape colors are purple, excepting wines and juices ("white grape" somethings).

The oddest purply color I've encountered is "aubergine", associated with another food—eggplant. "Why Is It Called an Eggplant?" explains the color as well as the eggplant name itself.
There is actually a color — aubergine — that resembles the purple of the eggplant.

A long, gourd-shaped, purple fruit is what most people think of when they hear the word “eggplant." … way back in the 1700s, early European versions of eggplant were smaller and yellow or white. They looked a bit like goose or hen's eggs, which led to the name “eggplant."

I mentioned "mauve" earlier. Oddly, Merriam-Webster's entry for "mauve" shows differing definitions that seem non-committal:
a : a moderate purple, violet, or lilac color
b : a strong purple

Three Purply Colors in My Box of Crayola Crayons
I rooted around looking for my box of 64 Crayola crayons (with sharpener) to see what purples I have—"violet (purple)", "blue violet", and "plum". During the very elementary grades when receiving the 8-pack (BIG-size for indelicate handling). (Maybe I was too young to think of "violet" or the parenthetical purple, only remembering "purple" as the dominant term.) IMO, the wrappers and sticks look a lot closer to each other than the circular marks I'd made. The "violet (purple)" mark looks a lot more like the "plum" mark than the "blue-violet" mark.

A Blog Article with Three Mentions of Purple Regarding Spiderworts

Only about a week ago, a blog article mentioning some purply terms nudged me to firm up my theme about purple. From Steve Schwartzman's "Another white variant"—"white variant of a spiderwort, a wildflower that is normally purple or magenta or violet. Another purplish wildflower that occasionally shades to white is the bluebonnet".

Sunday, April 15, 2018

Ride-sharing with a Snail


During a trip (October 25, 2002), I spied the critter on my rain-spattered rental car that I needed to return. It looked interesting enough that I took a dozen pictures over a period of a little less than a half hour (Oct 25, 2002, from 9:06 AM to 9:32 AM). I'm not sure it was still on the car by the time time I finished the car return process.

I noticed a few features in poring over some of the pictures. The body had a certain translucence to it. The antenna were interestingly pointed. The spiral on its shell was cute.

Snail Wrangler's "Anatomy" describes external and internal parts and includes labeled diagrams. Well, now I know those "antennae" are tentacles. The relevant page at Today I Found Out elaborates about tentacles and antennae ("feelers"). (While prepping my images to made a video, I wondered why my snail showed four "extensions"—two longer upper ones and two shorter lower ones.)

While thinking about looking up snail info, I also thought about slugs, which I thought had a lot of similarities to snails. And how! Looks like if a slug had a shell on it, it would easily pass for a snail. The shell seems to be the biggest identifier of difference between these two mollusks.

Snail vs Slug

I ran across numerous hits when I googled "snails vs. slugs". Most sites explained similarities as well as differences besides describing these animals and displaying images.

From Snail Wrangler "FAQ":
Q: What’s the difference between a snail and a slug? Are slugs related to snails?
A: Slugs and snails are very close relatives. They both glide along on a muscular foot, have tentacles. Snails have a shell while most slugs have little or no shell, and slugs with tiny shells cannot withdraw their body into it.

Q: Why are snails so slimy?
A: Snails make slime from special glands to help protect their bodies from drying out. The slime also helps the snail to adhere to surfaces as it glides along, and it also protects the snail’s foot from sharp protrusions.
Diffen's "Slug vs. Snail" has extensive info—comparison images, comparison table, and expansive explanations.
Slugs and snails are generally distinguished by the presence of a large exterior shell on the back of snails. Snails and slugs are both gastropod mollusks, and unlike most gastropods they are terrestrial i.e. found on land.
The site also describes similarities.
Both mollusks have several similar features, like eye spots at the end of slender tentacles, downward-directed mouths, and single, broad, muscular, flat-bottom feet, which is lubricated by mucus and covered with epithelial cilia.
Difference Between | Descriptive Analysis and Comparisons' "Difference between Snail and Slug" is another site with images, comparison table, and explanations, including similarities.
Snails and slugs are both members of a larger group Mullusca. This group or phylum generally includes soft-bodies animals which do not possess any type of body segmentation and often bear an external shell composed of calcareous material. …

Like snails, slugs also belong to the Phylum Mollusca. Slugs and snails both leave a silvery slime trail on the ground. Like snails, slugs are also commonly hermaphrodites. Both have one or two pairs of tentacles on their heads. They eat through radula covered with rows of teeth. Radula is similar to the tongue.
More slime info from Wonderopolis' "How Are Slugs and Snails Different?":
That slime is called mucus. Snails and slugs make mucous so that they can move on the ground. The mucus keeps their bodies from losing moisture to the dry soil beneath them. It also protects them from being cut by sharp objects in the soil. ... Because of their small size and the way they move, snails and slugs are naturally slow-moving creatures.
Note my tiled pic (left side) shows a good-length slime trail. The image is #6 of 12 of my slideshow video.

For lots more info about snails and slugs, do google search for "snail vs slug".

Video Entertainment (A Day at the Races)

"Snail & Slug Race"
An entertaining YouTube video of a side-by-side race between a slug and and snail. Music is abbreviated William Tell Overture, AKA Lone Ranger theme.

Another snail race—"2012 Race Night - Race 2, The Snail Race"
An 8-snail, side-by-side race. Participants were drafted when club members found them loitering at the premises. Music is a portion of "O Fortuna" soundalike and lots of "Chariots of Fire".

OK, not exactly a race—"Snail Gives Birth - Birth of a Snail"
The parent snail in the video resembles the one that rode with me.

Friday, March 30, 2018

Painted Rocks Borderline



While strolling one morning, I spotted a line of painted rocks along a homeowner's sidewalk. (Charming!) I decided to record them, starting from the left-side marker limestone boulder and ending with the right-side boulder. Being an amateur videographer, I wasn't very steady in moving sideways. It might have been cool to put the camera inside a toy train and pull the train with "record" on.

I also took pix for size and distance info, using my measuring stick (size refs) and extended tape measure. The border measured over 27 feet. (View pixstrip at top.)

My YouTube video includes individual images of the rocks—48 painted ones and the limestones, followed by a 4X speed clip of my original recording. Note that several of the painted rocks have circular designs with numerous dots (mandala).

Rocks and Pebbles

I initially thought about using "rock" in the blog title, but also considered"pebble". What's a pebble, and how does it differ from a rock? Some answers might surprise you.
From the Straight Dope forum with topic title " How small is a pebble? how big is a boulder? ":
The Wentworth scale seems about right to me - clearly in a casual context, it's all down to local definition - for me, it would be something like:

Pebble: something small enough to conceal in my closed hand, crucially, worn smooth and rounded, or it's not a pebble. …

Boulder: Something big enough that I would struggle to carry, or would find altogether impossible to lift. Compact shape (or else it's a slab or something else) …
A commenter provided a link to Wikipedia's "Grain size". A table lists sizes in increasing order. The columns titled "Aggregate name (Wentworth class" and "Other names" lists descriptive categories (picky, picky, picky).

Painted Rocks Background

"Here’s Why Painted Rocks Are the Next Big Thing", published in May 2017, describes the recent origin of painted rocks, suggestions on how-to's, and distribution. "The idea is simple—paint something inspiring or cheerful on a rock, and leave it for someone else to find."

"The Kindness Rocks Project" is the heart of the origin, mostly emphasizing the founder's inspirations and messages. As you might infer, the painted rocks in my article and video have deviated far from messages and visual display. The homeowner had apparently painted and placed the rocks as decoration, aligning them to the sidewalk rather than leaving individual rocks for others to discover.

"The Kindness Rocks Project", uploaded August 22, 2016, includes scenes from a community group session of rock painters. The accompanying music is "Fire and the Flood" by Vance Joy.

Some Beginner-level DIY Painted Rocks Videos

Friday, March 16, 2018

Silk, Silkworms, and Related

Last month, I wrote about spider silk, inspired to research because of recent articles I wrote about argiope spiders. I decided to revisit one of my curiosities about silk, particularly silkworms.

What was the process for obtaining silk from those worms? Did "farmers" have loads of worms that they fed till the worms entered pupating stage, then farmers unwound the material? What happened afterwards? Did the worms die? Did they recreate their chrysalises/cocoons, only to have farmers steal again? And again? And again?

In initial googling, I see that worms become moths, and their pupating stage includes cocoons, not crysalises. About a year ago, I wrote "Leggy Bugs—Caterpillars (Lepidopteran Larvae, which Become Butterflies and Moths)". My article explains that butterflies emerge from chrysalises, and moths emerge from cocoons.

"How silkworms make silk" answered many of my questions. Yes, they kill the worms, thus, no pupating do-overs. Workers obtain the silk afterward. About 2500 silkworms are required to yield one pound of silk. (The video refers to both chrysalis and cocoon; however, these pupal terms are not interchangeable.)

"Interesting Silkworm Facts" describes basic silkworm information for casually interested readers (self included). The gist of obtaining silk from the worms:
Once they enter this (pupal) state, they become motionless and enclose themselves in an envelope of silk. … This silk comes from their salivary glands. And it is this raw silk that people harvest and turn into those lustrous and fine fabric. … these silk threads are so thin and so fine that it takes 3000 cocoons to make one pound of silk. The sad thing about harvesting silk from silkworms is that these creatures die in the process. To get the silk, the cocoons must be boiled.
Other silk thoughts came to mind: Silkworm missiles, certain items made of silk, different silks, …

Weapons—Chinese Silkworm Missiles and Tomahawks

I couldn't find a feasible explanation for why a Silkworm missile is named Silkworm. The worm itself seems innocuous. It dies an early life because it gets boiled while it's in its cocoon, seldom reaching its natural and metamorphosed life as a moth. Maybe the name is a disarmingly misleading descriptor for a potent destroyer missile.

Another missile name that might seem odd is "tomahawk". My first encounter with the word was reading "Tomahawk", a comic book series from decades ago. It was clear that an actual tomahawk was a hand-held weapon. "Short History of Tomahawk" informs of the name's origin, with descriptions of various tomahawks and their changes over time.

Silk Stockings and Parachutes

From "England Textile Occupations Silk, Cotton, Weaving (National Institute)":
Early references to silk weaving in England occur in the trade protection Acts of the last half of the 15th century banning the import of foreign silk goods. … The 19th century was the heyday of the fashion for silk ribbon, dresses and other uses … Shorter skirts from the 1920s created a demand for silk stockings, and during the Second World War all silk was requisitioned for making parachutes, each requiring 67 square yards. When someone found a downed parachute, or they were sold off after the war, they were snapped up.
Besides a commodity, Silk Stockings is a 1957 movie starring Fred Astaire and Cyd Charisse. Another movie also named Silk Stockings came out in 1927. These two movies don't appear to have any relationship to the other.

More Silk and Hitting the Silk

Dictionary.com's entry for "silk" includes numerous definitions for uses as nouns, adjective, a verb, idioms, and word origin and history. The entry for "hit the silk" is the same as "silk", but includes additional information and explanation for the expression, which primarily pertains to a soldier jumping out of a plane in a parachute. (Some of the title headings might seem misleading or mistitled, in case you're persnickety, like I can be.)

Brocade and Other Kinds of Silk

In the past, I'd been curious about brocade, not knowing that it was silk with fancy characteristics. "The Different Types Of Silk" describes silk types that have familiar names (brocade, silk satin, chiffon, …) and shows illustrative examples.

"Damask vs Brocade: What's the Difference?" contrasts the two types of fabrics.
Damasks and brocades are not patterns but are two different types of fabric. Although they are both woven using a jacquard loom, they are constructed differently.
Although the article does not refer to "silk", it provides a link to "Jacquard Damask and Brocade Fabrics in Women's Fashion". This webpage talks about silk and additionally deeper details about the fabrics. Another resource is "Brocade and jacquard – what’s the difference? (or, the history of the jacquard loom, and all the weaves it can create)". (Despite the title lacking "Damask", the article gives it fair treatment.)

Silk Road

The more traditional Silk Road pertains to trade in the Far East. From History.com's "Silk Road":
The Silk Road was a network of trade routes connecting China and the Far East with the Middle East and Europe. Established when the Han Dynasty in China officially opened trade with the West in 130 B.C., the Silk Road routes remained in use until 1453 A.D. … Although it’s been nearly 600 years since the Silk Road has been used for international trade, the routes had a lasting impact on commerce, culture and history that resonates even today.
Another source about the Silk Road, at a more elementary level, is "Ancient China The Silk Road". "Caterpillar drives sales on China's new Silk Road" describes more recent attention to the area.
Helping fuel the growth of that (China) market, Caterpillar executives and analysts say, is China’s Belt and Road initiative, a huge infrastructure spending spree that builds on the old Silk Road trading routes. The ambitious and ever-growing $1 trillion initiative now includes projects spanning Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
The more recent Silk Road is associated with entrepreneurial Ross Ulbricht. "Silk Road’s mastermind Ross Ulbricht takes case to US Court of Appeals" provides some background about him and his company that he named Silk Road.
Silk Road operated using the Tor Network and the marketplace users mainly bought and sold drugs, false identification documents, and computer hacking software. Transactions on Silk Road used Bitcoins, favoured because of the anonymity it grants.

Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Close Word Groupings for Pause

Did you think I mean "close" as proximity or imperative? As the text is visual rather than aural, the pronunciation can be either, and the title's meaning ambiguous.

Various words seem to have at least visually related words that cause pause before I pick one for uttering or inserting in text. Some word "sets" apply maybe more for people that English is not their first language. This article lists mostly pairs of words that can cause misunderstanding because of picking the incorrect word. Context helps with the correct word selection. The trade-off is a time slowdown to assess the situation.

I've run across most of my hesitancy-inducing terms that I list while writing technical documentation or composing or answering email. Occasionally, I've run across some terms in a conversation, a TV show, or visual text that I read. For an example of pause-causing terms, think of this sample sentence and my use of "read" in the previous sentence. I used "example", "sample", and "read". "Read" is past tense in the context of my having used "I've run", although "read" can be present or past tense.

example, sample
In differentiating example from sample, an example serves as a pattern to imitate or not, per m-w.com, and a sample is a representative part of something larger. If you take a morsel from a tray of same-items to taste, that's a sample. If I see a crowd of people and notice someone dressed especially neatly, the person is an example of someone well-dressed.

resent, re-sent
If I send email and state that I sent something again, I will always write "re-sent" and not "resent", differentiating the action from a word that has negative meanings. (From M-w.com: "to feel or express annoyance or ill will at".)

pane, panel
"Pane" and "panel" differ by only one letter, but I often got confused when I confronted style guides that referred to both terms. Even googling "pane vs. panel" leaves uncertainty. In thinking out loud, I arrived at "instrument panel" for menu option panels, and at "window panes" for separate sections that display on a graphic interface.

A style guide at a current workplace would be the best source. If not thinking technical writing use, think of context—visualize window pane and wood panel.

astronomy, astrophysics, astrology
Of the three star-pertinent words, the two most recognizable ones are astronomer and astrologer. Their occupations are, uh, worlds apart despite their (uh again) focus on celestial bodies. From "The difference between astronomy and astrology":
Astronomy is ‘the branch of science which deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole’. If you’re thinking about the academic study, stargazers, telescopes, and the like, then the word you need is astronomy.

Astrology, on the other hand, is ‘the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world’. If you are writing about people using stars or planets to predict favourable or unfavourable events happening to humans, then astrology is the correct word.

Astrology originally included the calculation of natural phenomena and meteorological events (such as the measurement of time and the times of tides and eclipses) that are now considered the domain of astronomy.
"What is Astrophysics?" explains the professional's field. (The most well-known astrophysicist in our time might be Neil deGrasse Tyson.)
Astrophysics is a branch of space science that applies the laws of physics and chemistry to explain the birth, life and death of stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae and other objects in the universe. It has two sibling sciences, astronomy and cosmology, and the lines between them blur.
cosmology (science), cosmetology (certain appearance enhancement)
"Cosmology is not Astronomy/Astrophysics" is a YouTube explanation of cosmology (study of the universe as a whole), with nod to astronomy (study of individual celestial bodies, such as stars and galaxies).

Cosmetology is a field of hair, skin, and nail care, with subfields with varying occupation titles. "Cosmetology" shows cosmetology example focuses—hair, skin, and nail care.
Cosmetologists work on hair, skin, and nails. Estheticians work on skin care only. From "What’s the Difference Between a Cosmetologist and an Esthetician?"
Cosmetology is an area of study and a career that focuses on hair, skin, and nails. Cosmetologists can do both hair and nails, or focus their careers in one area. In comparison, esthetics focuses on skin care only. An esthetician is not qualified to perform pedicures, cut hair, or work with hair chemicals. With additional training and education a cosmetologist can also be an esthetician. … However, estheticians are generally not cosmetologists. Most states require separate licensing for each career.
The make-up artist in "What Is the Difference Between Cosmetologists & Makeup Artists? : Makeup Tips & Application" explains the differences between the occupations and also touches on esthetician roles. She also states that make-up artists only apply items to skin, a more narrow scope than esthetician.

Close Enough
close
If adjective, "s" pronunciation.
If verb, "z" pronunciation.

"English Pronunciation, common mistakes, close" is a good video for presenting both pronunciations and contexts.

closer
If adjective, "s" pronunciation.
If noun, "z" pronunciation.

Numerous YouTube videos pronounce with "s" without explanation. I found some videos that provide context for "closer" pronunciation. Examples:
Additional Items (Short Looks)
read
If present tense, long "e" pronunciation.
If past tense, short "e" pronunciation.

lead
If present-tense, long "e" pronunciation. Coincidentally, past tense has short "e" sound, but is spelled "led" rather than "lead".
If noun (the metal or periodic table element), short "e" pronunciation.

bass
If adjective (denoting very low-note type or types of musical instrument), long "a" pronunciation.
If noun (fish), short "a" pronunciation.

herb
If noun for seasoning or spice plant, silent "h".
If noun for male's name, spoken "h".

silicon
If noun for element or material for making particular type of semiconductor, short "o" pronunciation.

silicone
If noun for certain rubbery and flexible material, long "o" pronunciation.

union
If noun for items joined together, long "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable. Examples: Union vs. Confederacy, Western Union.

onion
If noun for the plant, short "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable. Examples: Green onion, Eastern Onion Singing Telegram.

hummus
If noun for the pureed chickpeas food, short "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable.

humus
If noun for decayed material for plant food, long "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable.

Sunday, February 25, 2018

Spider Silk Miscellany

During my searches about argiope trifasciata (banded garden) spiders for "Argiope Trifasciata Spider--Final Bug Spotting of 2017" and "Argiope Trifasciata Spider--Doggone Buggone at 2018 Start", I collected information about spider silk, webs, stabilimenta, and Charlotte's web. IMHO, the most interesting information about spider silk is specialization. Spiders produce different silk for different purposes, coming from different "extruders" called spinnerets.

Spider Silk and Webs
From "How Do Spiders Make Silk?"
The silk that spiders produce is five to six times stronger than high-grade steel by weight, and is stronger than any known natural or synthetic fiber on Earth.
From "Smooth as Silk"
All spiders produce silk but not all spiders spin webs. Silk is used for climbing, to create webs, to build smooth walls in burrows, build egg sacs, and wrap prey. … Most spiders have four or more openings, or glands, on their abdomen called spinnerets. When the spider releases the silk, it looks like one thread but it is actually many thin threads that stick together. ... Larger spiders, like the huge bird eating spiders, can actually catch and subdue animals as large as bats, mice, fish, birds and even snakes with their strong webs.
From "Spider Webs"
Web-Spinning Spiders … know when prey is trapped on their web by detecting and reacting to the vibrations the line makes from their prey moving and trying to get free.

Spiders have seven pairs of silk spinning organs or glands called “spinnerets” located either in the middle or at the end of their abdomen. Each spinneret on the spider is different from the other and used for making several kinds of silk: …

Web-Spinning spiders only use the tips of their legs when creating their webs so that their body doesn’t come in contact with the web and get stuck.
From "8 Silkily Engineered Facts About Spider Webs"
The basic structure includes radial threads that extend out like wheel spokes from the center. Another set of threads spiral out in concentric circles. The silk used to construct these two parts of the web is actually produced by different glands, which is why one is sticky and the other isn’t.
From "9 Amazing Facts about Spider Silk"
while the spider is not the only animal that can produce silk, it is the only animal that can produce different types of silk for different purposes. They can produce fine threads (called gossamer) and thicker threads, as well as both sticky and non-sticky threads.
From "Spiderweb vs. Cobweb - What You Need to know"
COMPLETE SHOW NOTES for this episode found at http://askahousecleaner.com/spider-web-vs-cobweb/.
Charlotte's Web
From "Charlotte's Web - WHO IS CHARLOTTE?"
Charlotte is a "barn spider." Her scientific name (today) is Araneus cavaticus. Her ability to spin orb webs is one of Charlotte’s characteristics.
From "10 Things You Might Not Know About Charlotte’s Web"
E.B. White created beloved characters out of the most unlikely of animals—a runt of a pig named Wilbur and a spider named Charlotte, who weaves words in her web to save his life.
From "Why Spiders Decorate Their Webs"
White wrote Charlotte's Web after marveling at the intricate patterns in a spider's web in the barn on his Maine farm. While we've yet to discover a real spider capable of weaving "some pig" or "terrific" in silk, we do know of many spiders that decorate their webs with zigzags, circles, and other fancy shapes and patterns.

These elaborate web decorations are known as stabilimenta. A stabilimentum (singular) may be a single zigzag line, a combination of lines, or even a spiral whorl in the web's center. A number of spiders weave stabilimenta into their webs, most notably orb weavers in the genus Argiope. Long-jawed spiders, golden silk orb weavers, and cribellate orb weavers also make web decorations.
More About Stabilimentum
"stabilimentum, stabilimenta"

In the Identification section of "stabilimentum, stabilimenta" Info tab—"conspicuous structures of heavy silk found in the webs of some orb-weavers (Araneidae)."

Recent Spider News Odds and Ends
From "Spider drinks graphene, spins web that can hold the weight of a human"
The webbing was on par with bulletproof Kevlar in strength.
From "How One of the Fastest Spinning Animals Catches Its Prey"
Flattie spiders can strike at speeds up to 3,000 degrees per second. That means that in the time it takes you to blink your eyes once, they can complete three full rotations.
From "Part spider, part scorpion creature captured in amber"
two independent teams describe four 100-million-year-old specimens encased in amber that look like a cross between a spider and a scorpion.
From "Eighteen new 'pelican' spiders discovered in Madagascan rainforest"
Pelican spiders were first discovered in the mid-1800’s, embedded in a piece of amber from the Baltics.

An ordinary house spider’s body is divided in two parts: the abdomen behind and cephalothorax in front, where the eyes sit above the mouth … But a pelican spider has an elongated head with eyes on top, and a long neck like a giraffe. The mouth sits at the base of the long neck …

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Argiope Trifasciata Spider--Doggone Buggone at 2018 Start

Tch! On the last day of 2017, I took pix and video of an argiope trifasciata spider. (For background, read "Argiope Trifasciata Spider--Final Bug Spotting of 2017".) The next morning, I went to the web; she was nowhere to be found. Over the next few days, we’d peered into the plant—no sign of the spider, nor indicators of web disturbances, nor egg sac.

I’m guessing that the spider did not undergo a "normal" life cycle. From BugwoodWiki's “Banded Garden Spider”:
The overwintering stage is the eggs, which are protected within an egg sac attached to vegetation. Upon hatch in spring the spiderlings disperse, … Adult males begin to appear in late July and females shortly afterwards. The males wander while the females remain within a web. Mating occurs in the latter half of the summer and females produce egg sacs, … Freezing temperatures kill off all remaining spiders at the end of the season and they have a one year life cycle.
I’m going out on a limb here. The case for the spider to not having been there in the summer and fall is lack of any egg sac since having spotted her on New Year’s Eve. I propose that the weather, fast approaching freezing, resulted in lack of prey or male, possibly (probably?) influencing her to abandon her web.

I gleaned the following temperature info from December 30 through January 3 results, using Weatherunderground's Wundermap for my area:

December 30 temps—high in low 60s at noon, temp 49ish around 8 PM when we spotted the spider.
December 31 temps—40 at AM start, 37ish around 8 AM when I took pix of the spider, gradual temp drops.
January 1 temps—mid-20s at AM start, less than 30 throughout the entire day and evening.
January 2 temps—lower than 30 throughout the entire day and evening.
January 3 temps—20s at AM start, climbing to 30s around 9 AM, climbing near 60s around 4 PM, then cooling down as evening progresses.

I speculate that the spider constructed the web during reasonable temperature, before the freezing temperature set in and that lasted a few days. During the freeze, prey maybe didn't approach the web (unwittingly or not); thus, no food for the spider. No male argiope trifasciata spider approached the web for mating; thus, no need for the female to create an egg sac.

A few successive days of looking at the plant and noting the intact web, I sensed the female abandoned the web. I ruled out the possibility of a predator making a meal of the spider. I think a struggle would have resulted in the web being wrecked.

One other oddity: The orb web did not have a stabilimentum (elaborate web decoration) as I've noticed in several other images of female argiope trifasciata spider webs. The lack of stabilimentum might have indicated the stoppage or interruption of the spider's "housekeeping setup" process. Read more about stabilimenta.

Curious about doing your own weather timeframe lookup? Start at https://www.wunderground.com/wundermap.
  1. Confirm or click All Layers > Weather Stations > Temperature / Wind.
  2. At the search field, enter your city of interest, then enlarge the view to the scale you want.
  3. Scroll to the area of interest. (The results might be slow to arrive.)
  4. Click a number. When the inset window opens, click Visit local weather page for [your locale].
  5. At the new window, scroll down to the weather history options. The first option is interval, the default being daily. You can set for larger intervals or customize for date range. View graph or table.
  6. The newer window has an enlargeable inset map with additional station numbers you can click and find similar information.

Thursday, January 25, 2018

Argiope Trifasciata Spider--Final Bug Spotting of 2017

The spider that I spotted in the morning of December 31, 2017 is in the same spider family and genus as argiope aurantia spider, which I wrote about in "Argiope Aurantia Spider--Part 1, Friday 13th Visitor" and "Argiope Aurantia Spider--Part 2, Post-Friday 13th Observations". The pixstrip images show the palm plant that this article’s spider was in, a peer into the plant, and larger views of the spider and inside of the plant. Click for a really close look of the spider and its spinnerets.

In my excitement over the spider’s striking looks facing me, I overlooked going around the palm plant for photographing or recording the spider's opposite side. In my quest for finding the spider's ID, I spotted various images that matched my best picture, which turned out to be the ventral view of an argiope trifasciata spider. Fortunately, I found some websites that show both ventral AND dorsal views. What a contrast!

In InsectIdentification’s “North American Spiders List”, I picked options at the bugfinder section at the bottom for general bug characteristics. The hits helped narrow down candidate bugs of various creepy crawly types.

I finally found the banded garden spider to be my model spider, but it was a roundabout way of finding the prospect. A helpful site was dPestSupply’s information section and picture for “Banded Garden Spider” (argiope trifasciata). (Coincidentally, just below the banded spider section was information and picture of a black-and-yellow garden spider (argiope aurantia), the one I wrote about in October.)

I found my way to InsectIdentification’s “Banded Garden Spider” page. Click the fourth and fifth thumbnails for viewing fill-the-screen closeups. The latter image very closely resembles my closeup near the top of this article.

As I dug deeper into the spider’s information, I found more corroborating information about the dorsal and ventral views.

BugwoodWiki’s “Banded Garden Spider” website provides basic information and images.
The banded garden spider (Figure 1 and 2) is a large species, with a generally ovoid form and bright markings. Mature females may be 13-14.5 mm when fully extended and the carapace of the body typically between 5-6.5 mm in length.

The banded argiope is an orbweaver spider that produces its large concentrically patterned web in areas of tall grass and shrubby vegetation. The web is sticky and strong, capable of holding fairly large and active insects such as wasps and grasshoppers.

Mating occurs in the latter half of the summer and females produce egg sacs, which have a general shape of a kettle drum. Freezing temperatures kill off all remaining spiders at the end of the season and they have a one year life cycle.
Fletcher Wildlife Garden (FWG) gallery at "Orb Weaver spiders (Araneidae)" shows a gallery of spiders in the family of orb weavers, including the argiope trifasciata spider (this article) and previous month's article about argiope aurantia spider.

View "Banded argiope (Argiope trifasciata), top side" (dorsal) and "Banded argiope (Argiope trifasciata), underside" (ventral). Another ventral view image shows an oval outline and arrow that identify the spinnerets.

A YouTube video "Argiope trifasciata (Banded Garden Spider) - catching a grasshopper" shows the spider in action, rotating itself several times, displaying its dorsal and ventral sides. Note the dorsal side's horizontal bands (invoking thoughts of Jupiter's cloud bands), and the ventral side's two prominent vertical bands with the red spinneret section as the spider maneuvers, wrapping its prey for later consumption.

Curious about the argiope garden spider for similarities and differences? Visit Bugguide's "Genus Argiope" taxonomy page. Also click Info and Images tabs.
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