Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Close Word Groupings for Pause

Did you think I mean "close" as proximity or imperative? As the text is visual rather than aural, the pronunciation can be either, and the title's meaning ambiguous.

Various words seem to have at least visually related words that cause pause before I pick one for uttering or inserting in text. Some word "sets" apply maybe more for people that English is not their first language. This article lists mostly pairs of words that can cause misunderstanding because of picking the incorrect word. Context helps with the correct word selection. The trade-off is a time slowdown to assess the situation.

I've run across most of my hesitancy-inducing terms that I list while writing technical documentation or composing or answering email. Occasionally, I've run across some terms in a conversation, a TV show, or visual text that I read. For an example of pause-causing terms, think of this sample sentence and my use of "read" in the previous sentence. I used "example", "sample", and "read". "Read" is past tense in the context of my having used "I've run", although "read" can be present or past tense.

example, sample
In differentiating example from sample, an example serves as a pattern to imitate or not, per m-w.com, and a sample is a representative part of something larger. If you take a morsel from a tray of same-items to taste, that's a sample. If I see a crowd of people and notice someone dressed especially neatly, the person is an example of someone well-dressed.

resent, re-sent
If I send email and state that I sent something again, I will always write "re-sent" and not "resent", differentiating the action from a word that has negative meanings. (From M-w.com: "to feel or express annoyance or ill will at".)

pane, panel
"Pane" and "panel" differ by only one letter, but I often got confused when I confronted style guides that referred to both terms. Even googling "pane vs. panel" leaves uncertainty. In thinking out loud, I arrived at "instrument panel" for menu option panels, and at "window panes" for separate sections that display on a graphic interface.

A style guide at a current workplace would be the best source. If not thinking technical writing use, think of context—visualize window pane and wood panel.

astronomy, astrophysics, astrology
Of the three star-pertinent words, the two most recognizable ones are astronomer and astrologer. Their occupations are, uh, worlds apart despite their (uh again) focus on celestial bodies. From "The difference between astronomy and astrology":
Astronomy is ‘the branch of science which deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole’. If you’re thinking about the academic study, stargazers, telescopes, and the like, then the word you need is astronomy.

Astrology, on the other hand, is ‘the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world’. If you are writing about people using stars or planets to predict favourable or unfavourable events happening to humans, then astrology is the correct word.

Astrology originally included the calculation of natural phenomena and meteorological events (such as the measurement of time and the times of tides and eclipses) that are now considered the domain of astronomy.
"What is Astrophysics?" explains the professional's field. (The most well-known astrophysicist in our time might be Neil deGrasse Tyson.)
Astrophysics is a branch of space science that applies the laws of physics and chemistry to explain the birth, life and death of stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae and other objects in the universe. It has two sibling sciences, astronomy and cosmology, and the lines between them blur.
cosmology (science), cosmetology (certain appearance enhancement)
"Cosmology is not Astronomy/Astrophysics" is a YouTube explanation of cosmology (study of the universe as a whole), with nod to astronomy (study of individual celestial bodies, such as stars and galaxies).

Cosmetology is a field of hair, skin, and nail care, with subfields with varying occupation titles. "Cosmetology" shows cosmetology example focuses—hair, skin, and nail care.
Cosmetologists work on hair, skin, and nails. Estheticians work on skin care only. From "What’s the Difference Between a Cosmetologist and an Esthetician?"
Cosmetology is an area of study and a career that focuses on hair, skin, and nails. Cosmetologists can do both hair and nails, or focus their careers in one area. In comparison, esthetics focuses on skin care only. An esthetician is not qualified to perform pedicures, cut hair, or work with hair chemicals. With additional training and education a cosmetologist can also be an esthetician. … However, estheticians are generally not cosmetologists. Most states require separate licensing for each career.
The make-up artist in "What Is the Difference Between Cosmetologists & Makeup Artists? : Makeup Tips & Application" explains the differences between the occupations and also touches on esthetician roles. She also states that make-up artists only apply items to skin, a more narrow scope than esthetician.

Close Enough
close
If adjective, "s" pronunciation.
If verb, "z" pronunciation.

"English Pronunciation, common mistakes, close" is a good video for presenting both pronunciations and contexts.

closer
If adjective, "s" pronunciation.
If noun, "z" pronunciation.

Numerous YouTube videos pronounce with "s" without explanation. I found some videos that provide context for "closer" pronunciation. Examples:
Additional Items (Short Looks)
read
If present tense, long "e" pronunciation.
If past tense, short "e" pronunciation.

lead
If present-tense, long "e" pronunciation. Coincidentally, past tense has short "e" sound, but is spelled "led" rather than "lead".
If noun (the metal or periodic table element), short "e" pronunciation.

bass
If adjective (denoting very low-note type or types of musical instrument), long "a" pronunciation.
If noun (fish), short "a" pronunciation.

herb
If noun for seasoning or spice plant, silent "h".
If noun for male's name, spoken "h".

silicon
If noun for element or material for making particular type of semiconductor, short "o" pronunciation.

silicone
If noun for certain rubbery and flexible material, long "o" pronunciation.

union
If noun for items joined together, long "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable. Examples: Union vs. Confederacy, Western Union.

onion
If noun for the plant, short "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable. Examples: Green onion, Eastern Onion Singing Telegram.

hummus
If noun for the pureed chickpeas food, short "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable.

humus
If noun for decayed material for plant food, long "u" pronunciation in the first syllable, short "u" in the second syllable.

Sunday, February 25, 2018

Spider Silk Miscellany

During my searches about argiope trifasciata (banded garden) spiders for "Argiope Trifasciata Spider--Final Bug Spotting of 2017" and "Argiope Trifasciata Spider--Doggone Buggone at 2018 Start", I collected information about spider silk, webs, stabilimenta, and Charlotte's web. IMHO, the most interesting information about spider silk is specialization. Spiders produce different silk for different purposes, coming from different "extruders" called spinnerets.

Spider Silk and Webs
From "How Do Spiders Make Silk?"
The silk that spiders produce is five to six times stronger than high-grade steel by weight, and is stronger than any known natural or synthetic fiber on Earth.
From "Smooth as Silk"
All spiders produce silk but not all spiders spin webs. Silk is used for climbing, to create webs, to build smooth walls in burrows, build egg sacs, and wrap prey. … Most spiders have four or more openings, or glands, on their abdomen called spinnerets. When the spider releases the silk, it looks like one thread but it is actually many thin threads that stick together. ... Larger spiders, like the huge bird eating spiders, can actually catch and subdue animals as large as bats, mice, fish, birds and even snakes with their strong webs.
From "Spider Webs"
Web-Spinning Spiders … know when prey is trapped on their web by detecting and reacting to the vibrations the line makes from their prey moving and trying to get free.

Spiders have seven pairs of silk spinning organs or glands called “spinnerets” located either in the middle or at the end of their abdomen. Each spinneret on the spider is different from the other and used for making several kinds of silk: …

Web-Spinning spiders only use the tips of their legs when creating their webs so that their body doesn’t come in contact with the web and get stuck.
From "8 Silkily Engineered Facts About Spider Webs"
The basic structure includes radial threads that extend out like wheel spokes from the center. Another set of threads spiral out in concentric circles. The silk used to construct these two parts of the web is actually produced by different glands, which is why one is sticky and the other isn’t.
From "9 Amazing Facts about Spider Silk"
while the spider is not the only animal that can produce silk, it is the only animal that can produce different types of silk for different purposes. They can produce fine threads (called gossamer) and thicker threads, as well as both sticky and non-sticky threads.
From "Spiderweb vs. Cobweb - What You Need to know"
COMPLETE SHOW NOTES for this episode found at http://askahousecleaner.com/spider-web-vs-cobweb/.
Charlotte's Web
From "Charlotte's Web - WHO IS CHARLOTTE?"
Charlotte is a "barn spider." Her scientific name (today) is Araneus cavaticus. Her ability to spin orb webs is one of Charlotte’s characteristics.
From "10 Things You Might Not Know About Charlotte’s Web"
E.B. White created beloved characters out of the most unlikely of animals—a runt of a pig named Wilbur and a spider named Charlotte, who weaves words in her web to save his life.
From "Why Spiders Decorate Their Webs"
White wrote Charlotte's Web after marveling at the intricate patterns in a spider's web in the barn on his Maine farm. While we've yet to discover a real spider capable of weaving "some pig" or "terrific" in silk, we do know of many spiders that decorate their webs with zigzags, circles, and other fancy shapes and patterns.

These elaborate web decorations are known as stabilimenta. A stabilimentum (singular) may be a single zigzag line, a combination of lines, or even a spiral whorl in the web's center. A number of spiders weave stabilimenta into their webs, most notably orb weavers in the genus Argiope. Long-jawed spiders, golden silk orb weavers, and cribellate orb weavers also make web decorations.
More About Stabilimentum
"stabilimentum, stabilimenta"

In the Identification section of "stabilimentum, stabilimenta" Info tab—"conspicuous structures of heavy silk found in the webs of some orb-weavers (Araneidae)."

Recent Spider News Odds and Ends
From "Spider drinks graphene, spins web that can hold the weight of a human"
The webbing was on par with bulletproof Kevlar in strength.
From "How One of the Fastest Spinning Animals Catches Its Prey"
Flattie spiders can strike at speeds up to 3,000 degrees per second. That means that in the time it takes you to blink your eyes once, they can complete three full rotations.
From "Part spider, part scorpion creature captured in amber"
two independent teams describe four 100-million-year-old specimens encased in amber that look like a cross between a spider and a scorpion.
From "Eighteen new 'pelican' spiders discovered in Madagascan rainforest"
Pelican spiders were first discovered in the mid-1800’s, embedded in a piece of amber from the Baltics.

An ordinary house spider’s body is divided in two parts: the abdomen behind and cephalothorax in front, where the eyes sit above the mouth … But a pelican spider has an elongated head with eyes on top, and a long neck like a giraffe. The mouth sits at the base of the long neck …
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